Figure skating

< SECTION 1 OF 2 > Figure skating Figure skating is an Olympic sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform spins, jumps, footwork, and other intricate and challenging moves on ice skates. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level (senior), and at local, national, and international competitions. The International Skating Union (ISU) regulates international figure skating judging and competitions. Figure skating is an official event in the Winter Olympic Games. In languages other than English and Russian, figure skating is usually referred to by a name that translates as “artistic skating.” Major international competitions are sanctioned by the ISU. These include the Winter Olympic Games, the World Championships, the World Junior Figure Skating Championships, the European Figure Skating Championships, the Four Continents Figure Skating Championships, and the ISU Grand Prix of Figure Skating (senior and junior). The sport is also associated with show-business. Major competitions generally include exhibitions at the end in which the top-placing skaters perform non-competitive programs for the audience. Many skaters, both during and after their competitive careers, also skate in ice skating exhibitions or shows which run during the competitive season and the off- season. Olympic sports in figure skating comprise the following disciplines: • Singles competition for men and women (who are referred to as "ladies" in ISU rulebooks), wherein skaters For more information see: Licensed under the CC-BY-SA: PassageBank Passage provided under license from Use and duplication is restricted to licensees only. < SECTION 2 OF 2 > perform jumps, spins, step sequences, spirals, and other elements in their programs. • Pair skating teams consist of a woman and a man. Pairs perform singles elements in unison as well as pair-specific elements such as throw jumps, in which the man 'throws' the woman into a jump; lifts, in which the woman is held above the man's head in one of various grips and positions; pair spins, in which both skaters spin together about a common axis; death spirals; and other elements. • Ice dancing is for couples consisting of a woman and a man skating together. Ice dance differs from pairs in focusing on intricate footwork performed in close dance holds, in time with the music. Ice dance lifts must not go above the shoulder. Jumps are one of the most important elements of figure skating. Jumps involve the skater leaping into the air and rotating rapidly to land after completing one or more rotations. There are many types of jumps, identified by the way the skater takes off and lands, as well as by the number of rotations that are completed. Under-rotations or using the incorrect edge will lower the jump's score. The judges also look at height, speed, and ice coverage. Jumps can be rotated in clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Most skaters are counterclockwise jumpers. There are six jumps in figure skating that count as jump elements. All six are landed on one foot on the right back outside edge (with counterclockwise rotation, for single and multi-revolution jumps), but have different takeoffs, by which they may be distinguished. The two categories of jumps are toe jumps and edge jumps. For more information see: Licensed under the CC-BY-SA: PassageBank Passage provided under license from Use and duplication is restricted to licensees only.

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